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Five components were used on the construction of the railway tracks: rails, ties, spikes, ballasts, and subgrade. The rails consisted of steel lengths which were bolted or welded together to form the running surface for the train. The subgrade consisted of good quality soil that was used to construct a solid base. The ballast was made of rock material which covered the subgrade, and which was the base upon which the rail ties were placed. These ties were usually made of wood or sometimes concrete. The spike was used to fasten the rails onto the wooden ties. (Marion Kennedy)
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